Banner image - Elements of this Workshop Proposal: Asilomar Meeting of 1979; the 1996 report; Fong's schematic representation of the reductive fission reaction (1989); Calvin's representation of same (1964); and Wikipedia's Calvin cycle (2011)

Workshop Proposal

I. The Posner Insiders Circle

In 1979, Dr. Calvin answered the author Francis K. Fong's question featured below, why he stopped basic research in photosynthesis, "I had no choice in the matter.  You have a large following now.  But unless you go along, 'they' can, and will, terminate your research."  By "they," Calvin meant the insiders circle of public officials of whom Judge Posner wrote on bribery as a victimless crime:[1] 

"So what is wrong with bribing public officials to obtain public services, provided the practice is known and wages are adjusted accordingly? In effect, bribes shift the financing of public services from taxes to a combination of taxes and fees for service. By injecting a market element into public services, bribes can actually improve efficiency when used to get around rigid or inefficient rules."

On 2/9/13 the author Francis K. Fong submitted before President Obama his Final Report, as supplemented 2/18/13.  This Report led the Indiana Supreme Court to disclose the insiders circle of SB/SE and OIG officers bound by the Posner-Steininger agreement, by which is unraveled the public officials' method for providing the "public services," of murder, money laundering from the US Treasury, Daniels' $48,903.81 transfer to the Sibley trust, backed by death threats and the wholly fictitious state and federal court proceedings originating from Indiana Justice Shepard's issuance of "TIAA Order" described in the 1996 report.  These public services date from the DOE-sponsored Berkeley's Asilomar Conference of 1979 featuring Fong's question to Calvin, "Did the Calvin cycle cause you to abandon basic research to grow sugarcane plants in Brazil?" 

 II. Posner-Steininger Agreement

On 1/3/96, Fong, Mrs. Fong and their son, Peter, received  tape-recorded death threats, hours after Fong faxed IR Commissioner Richardson on Mr. Daniels' removal from OCR of the committed GAO review of the Calvin cycle.  IRS District Director's Representative John Hunter recognized the callers from his contacts with the 7th Circuit judges in his service at Benton Harbor.  He filed a bribery complaint with IRS Internal Security and Exempt Organizations, which was couriered from the Cincinnati Service Center back to Indianapolis for Fong's interview with Internal Security Inspector Terry Sparks.  Mr. Sparks disclosed the "public service" of death threats provided by the SB/SE executives doing drug-trafficking business across the Terre Haute/Danville stateline.  The death threats failed.  Then, to hide Mr. Daniels' $48,903.81 transfer in a small claims court, to perfect the wholly fictitious proceedings in state and federal courts, the judges and the SB/SE executives entered into the Posner-Steininger agreement, by which:

  1. Justice Sullivan and Judge Posner silenced their real reason for disbarring attorney Andrew Jackson, his representation of Woodmar Realty Company in claiming the $48,903.81 Mr. Daniels had years earlier transferred from Woodmar, USDC, No. 3151, to the John Doe Trust in Sibley, Lake Superior Court, No. 51815.
  2. IRS Internal Security Inspector-in-Charge Richard Steininger prohibited Mr. Sparks from naming the shooters of the MacLauchlan and Given killings ordered by Judge Posner, the callers of the death threats.    

III. Literature Survey 

In 1952-55, Calvin reported that, in the light, carboxylation results in an asymmetric fission of the 6-carbon intermediate into one molecule of PGA and another of triose:

RuBP + CO2 ────> Triose →→ Sucrose
|──-> PGA                                                                         (L)

Calvin reported that reaction (L) shuts off when the light is turned off, as a hydrolytic splitting of the 6-carbon intermediate yields two molecules of PGA:

RuBP + CO2 ────> 2PGA                                                  (D)

Accordingly, Calvin ended his Nobel Lecture with a conclusion of reaction (L). Calvin, M. (1964) “The path of carbon in photosynthesis,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 618–644 at 638, Fig.20. 

IV. The Calvin Cycle: Wikipedia

Against this finding of reaction (L), the standard for NSF funding of photosynthesis research is as given by Wikipedia's schematic representation of reaction (D) shown below.   

Wikipedia's Calvin cycle article cites two references:
  1. Bassham J, Benson A, Calvin M (1950). "The path of carbon in photosynthesis". J Biol Chem 185 (2): 781–7. PMID 14774424. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/185/2/781.pdf.
  2. Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. 
In  Ref.1, the carbon cycle is shown as a black circle. Ref.2 skips over 56 years to an unrefereed work on RuBisco, a subject of no consequence to photosynthesis, by three authors all strangers to photosynthesis research.  Omitted are the original papers by Calvin and others (Wikipedia calls them "the Fong paper"): Calvin,M. and Massini,P. (1952) Experientia 8, 445-484; Wilson,A.T. and Calvin,M. (1955) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 5948-5957; Bassham, J.A., Shibata, K., Steenberg, K., Bourdon, J. and Calvin, M. (1956) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 78, 4120-4124; Vishniac, W., Horecker, B.L., and Ochoa, S. (1957) Adv. Enzymol. 19, 1-77; Bassham, J.A. and Calvin, M. (1957) "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Calvin, M. and Pon, N.G. (1959) J. Cellular Comp. Physiol., 54, Suppl. 1, 51-74; Bassham, J.A. and Kirk, M. (1960) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 43, 447-464; and Fong, Francis K. and Butcher, Karen A. (1988) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 150, 399-404. These omitted papers are hidden from the public, because they report photosynthesis as a noncyclic light reaction via a reductive system as yet unknown. 

 V. Issues

Wikipedia administrators' Calvin cycle article is not harmless inadvertency.  Fong spent days discussing with them NSF's letter of 11/6/89.  Accordingly, for the United States to recover its money damages arising from the Calvin cycle, in addition to a determination of the dollar figure for that recovery, we specialize this Proposal to the three issues underlying the Calvin cycle's durability, a collapse-proof quality lacking in other Ponzi schemes:

  1. Whether there exist peer-reviewed published findings, in vivo, in support of Wikipedia's representation of reaction (D) as the initial step in the Calvin cycle;
  2. Whether, by the Posner-Steininger agreement, the insiders circle of public officials maintain their control of the Sibley trust, a conduit for laundering Mr. Daniels' $48,903.81 transfer from Treasury for insiders circle's public service for insiders trading in JPM Industries shares as seed for NSF funding of the Calvin cycle; and
  3. Whether outsider individuals, including specifically, but not exclusively, governmental officials, and entities -- Wikipedia, university foundations, other corporate institutions, their owners and management ranks -- profiting from the insiders circle's public services, or otherwise seeking entry to such insiders circle, should be held, severally and jointly, liable for the United States' losses arising from NSF's funding of the Calvin cycle under the provisions for treble damages of the Federal RICO and Federal False Claims Acts.  In 1987, Congressional specialists and NSF Assistant Inspector General (Accounting) Bennett visited with Fong, and estimated Treasury's losses arising from the Calvin cycle totaling in excess of $2.5b in 1987 dollars.    

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